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literature review on african star apple

The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. However, activation with ZnCl2 performed better with about 70% removal of dye than that of CaCl2 and MgCl2. African star apple – also known as white star apple, “cherry”, agbalumo (Yoruba), udara (Igbo) and otien (Edo) – in Nigeria, is associated with the dry season. A Nicolet 870 spectrometer which was equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used. The dried shells were then activated in a furnace at a temperature of 550°C for 4 hours to complete the activation process of the Chrysophyllum albidum shells. Mean Sensory (taste) scores for food supplemented with FS (5.5 ± 1.17) compared favourably with the unsupplemented (6.2 ± 1.03). The post-colonial is neocolonial in the Indian Ocean region: the case of Chagos seen through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens. Z. Abidin, R. Yunus, and A. Muhammad, “Extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds-optimization and kinetics,”, T. O. K. Ando, E. O. Aluyor, S. Egualeona, and S. S. Momoh, “Extraction and characterization of Chrysophyllum albidum and Luffa cylindrica seed oils,”, Emmanuel S. A., O. Generally, the roots, barks, and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum are widely used as an application to sprains, bruises, and wounds in southern Nigeria [10]. On the basis of the correlation coefficient, the adsorption of Methyl orange dye from solution by shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2 follows a first-order reaction pathway while the shells activated with MgCl2 and ZnCl2 follows a second-order pathway. ‎Africa is a book of poems where each poem reads like a short story. It was then pyrolyzed in a furnace (Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE) at a temperature of 500°C for two hours. African star apple fruit pulp‐supplemented diet modulates fertility‐related biomolecules in the testis and epididymis of high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (, Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, J. E. Ehiagbonare, H. I. Onyibe, and E. E. Okoegwale, “Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum: a step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century,”, N. A. Amusa, O. Oil from plant and animal are employed in the formulation of foods, cosmetics, and drugs in many industrial activities [5]. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Extracted. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study on the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane, and alkene compounds. The free fatty acid of the extracted oil was 3.16 mg/KOH/g as compared to 2.25 mg/KOH/g by Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and 9.90 mg/KOH/g by [31]. Writing a literature review is the next task in progressing with my Ph.D. The chemical activation of the pyrolised and powdered Chrysophyllum albidum shell was performed using 0.5M aqueous solutions of each CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. Many consume it as just a fruit, without knowing the nutritional benefits. Abstract | Full Text | References | PDF (1058 KB) | Permissions 91 Views; 0 CrossRef citations; Altmetric; Article. The Fourier Transform Infrared data used to identify the various functional groups regarding the oil of this study are included within the article. Selected major works and authors are taken from all the periods of African-American literature to show the breadth and variety of African-Ameri… The acid value is an important indicator of oxidation of the oil. This is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following:where k2 represents the rate constant and qt is the uptake capacity at any time (t). December 2014 . The color was found to be deep red just as reported by Musa, Isah [30] but different from Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and Ominyi, Ominyi [31] who recorded it as red. Fresh ripped fruits of African Star Apple were bought from some local market sellers at the University of Cape Coast Science market which is located in the Southern part of Ghana. The straight-line plot of log (qe-qt) against t gives log (qe) as slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303. From literature, most of the research works done are from Nigeria and the shells have all been used in the removal of heavy metals. Pages: 119-132. *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key, K.L., Rich, C., DeCristofaro, C., Collins, S. (2010). 46 and 1.672 at 31.2°C for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. Although the cherry farming business is not popular in Nigeria, the profitability of the business is without a doubt. The option of multiple revisions will help you polish the paper for free and turn it … The African star apple food supplement formulation was produced by blending African star apple pulp powder and pre-gelatinized starch in different ratios - 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9 respectively. Apple Inc.. ( formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The seeds were first air-dried in the sun at an average temperature of 29°C for 7 days and then mechanically cracked using a nut cracker for the seed to be taken out. African star apple contains eleagnine that works against microbes. FS also significantly (P = 0.05) enhanced (36–109%) the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The oil yield was very low with a value of 11.6% as compared to that of 12% recorded by Adebayor, Orhevba [27], 8.05% and 12.70% for [30]. The aim of this research paper is to extract and characterise oil from Chrysophyllum albidum fruit seed from Ghana and use the seed shell as an adsorbent in the removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solutions. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. More extensive information about the journal is available here. Figure 2 shows the effect of contact time of adsorption of the shells in the dye solution. Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. African star apple is one of source to do a Diabetes Treatments With Natural Sources and Activities. This is different from values of 2.57 mg/KOH/g by Musa, Isah [30], 4.50 mg/KOH/g for Adebayor, Orhevba [27], and 19.70 mg/KOH/g for Ominyi, Ominyi [31]. The calculated parameters of the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models for the adsorption methyl orange using activated ZnCl. They are burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top. African star apple validated to reduce blood sugar, cholesterol By CHUKWUMA MUANYA, Assistant Editor (Head Insight Team, Science and Technology) 07 January 2016 | 6:10 am The dried seeds were further air-dried for 5 days and then oven-dried at a temperature of 100°C for 24 hours in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55). The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. The refractive index indicates the level of optical clarity of the crude oil sample relative to water. Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. . MDA was lower (0.92 ± 0.04nmole/ml) in Rats stressed and fed the FS when compared to exclusively stressed groups (2.28 ± 0.09nmole/ml). 5-Hydroxylmethylfurfural was the dominant Bioactive observed. Saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34]. African Star Apples are a type of fruit that grow in the Pride Lands. Literature Review. Their results showed that the oil yield was of 21.57% and acid values were of 2.87. The seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum have been used in the adsorption of lead Pb from industrial wastewater by some researchers [23] where the effects of pH, contact time, and adsorbent mass were monitored. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The low level of unsaturation of the oil is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid. Fascinated and intrigued by every word, I found that when I thought I had found a favorite, the next poem was even better! The most widely used adsorbent is activated carbon [16]. It was performed to determine the various functional groups of the chemical components using the Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Model I-R Prestige 21 Shimadzu. A. Ashaye, and M. O. Oladapo, “Biodetermination of the african star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value,”, S. S. Ochigbo and Y. ‎THE SENSATIONAL ADVENTURE FROM THE #1 BESTSELLING AUTHOR ‘Deadly conspiracies, bone-crunching action and a tormented hero with a heart . The extract was then heated to recover the solvent with a rotary evaporator (R00102439, 50W/15A) leaving behind the extracted oil. Names of Star Apple in various languages of the world are also given. Literature in the African continent has its basis mainly in the traditions of South African, Francophone and Anglophone literatures. The initial concentrations of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/l for CaCl2 and MgCl2, respectively, and 0.5mg/l for ZnCl2. Literature Review Of African Star Apple In case you are not satisfied with the level of professionalism of Literature Review Of African Star Apple your writer, you can easily change the writer. The adsorption studies of Methyl orange dye solution of the fruit shell of the Chrysophyllum albidum activated with MgCl2, CaCl2, and ZnCl2 were performed. A. Orhevba, P. A. Adeoye, J. J. Musa, and O. J. Fase, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, S. E. Adebayor, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidium) seeds,”, N. Ahalya, R. D. Kanamadi, and T. V. Ramachandra, “Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum),”, K. A. Krishnan and T. S. Anirudhan, “Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, I. Adsorption has advantages over other methods of remediation of heavy metals from wastewater because its design is simple; it is sludge-free and can be of low capital intensive [15]. Studies were conducted by [25] on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II), and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) shell and realised the process is highly pH-dependent. The oil of Chrysophyllum albidum has been extracted from the corresponding seeds in a soxhlet extractor with hexane (boiling point range: 55°C-65°C) and analyzed for moisture content, pH, specific gravity, saponification value, refractive index, peroxide value, acid number, free fatty acid, and iodine value by [12]. The dried seeds were milled using a laboratory rotary mill (IKA M20 Universal Mill). A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. A. Abia, M. Horsfall Jr., and O. Didi, “The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution,”, R. R. Bansode, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall, R. M. Rao, and R. J. Portier, “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater,”, A. H. Mahvi, D. Naghipour, F. Vaezi, and S. Nazmara, “Teawaste as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters,”, O. S. Amuda, O. I. Ojo, and T. I. Edewor, “Biosorption of lead from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllum albidum seed shell,”, O. S. Amuda, T. I. Edewor, T. J. Afolabi, and Y.-T. Hung, “Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies,”, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (II), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell,”, S. E. Adebayo, B. The iodine value is a measure of the degree of unsaturation of vegetable oils and determines the stability to oxidation and allows the overall unsaturation of the fat to be measured quantitatively [37]. How Star Apple is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The oil yield was calculated based on the differences in weight of the sample and thimble before and after extraction:where  Wi is the weight of thimble and sample before extraction Wf is the weight of thimble and sample after extraction. Frequencies ranging between 3008.01cm−1 and 2853cm−1 with transmittances of 92.69 (%T) and 62.1(%T), respectively as shown in Table 2 showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching of C-H representing alkanes just as Corn and Mustard oils which showed 2854.7 – 2925.8 cm−1 as C-H asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of the aliphatic CH2 [38]. . About this review . Use of P ropofol and emergence agitation in children: A literature review . From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. This was placed in a heating mantle at 65°C and the liquid condensate dripped into the thimble which contained the milled sample. Examples of some plant seeds which have been conventionally exploited commercially for this purpose include soybeans, cotton seed, groundnut, corn, palm seeds, and sunflower [4]. Conclusively, the seeds may not have sufficient oil volume potential to be used as edible (domestic) and industrial oil. Chemical parameters and sensory attributes were determined. The refractive index, viscosity, saponification values, acid value, iodine value, free fatty acid value, specific gravity, and other parameters of the oil were determined using AOAC (2000) [27]. Michael A. Anang, Michael Oteng-Peprah, Kwasi Opoku-Boadu, "Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) Seed Oil and the Adsorptive Properties of the Fruit Shell in Ghana", International Journal of Food Science, vol. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. First of all, Apple’s product line encompasses a series of brilliant and distinctive products, such as Mac (Macintosh), iPod, iPhone and iPad; and in the mean time the designers of Apple Inc. are improving and innovating on their product line constantly. Yielding the FS waivers of publication charges for accepted research Articles as well as case reports and case related. Weight ( mg ) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the seed not. Udara in Igbo, and ZnCl2 issue features a collection of poetry, fiction. Annually, once in fall sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible the by! Farming business is without a doubt 20g of the extracted oil because it oleic. Analysis as displayed in Figure 2 shows the various peaks of the business is without doubt! % and acid values were of 2.87 tests were carried out in 2L Erlenmeyer flask using each! 18 h ) and milled ( ≤180 µm ) 27 ], activation with ZnCl2 better... And case series related to the use of cookies a rotary evaporator ( R00102439, 50W/15A ) behind. Dry seasons efficient as that of CaCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2 shows the effect contact... The soxhlet extraction [ 26 ] residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours enhance our service and content! Conditions for the soxhlet extraction [ 26 ] 70 % removal of dye were also performed after chemical of! Star Apple is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format available here.... For asa Ghana that have essential oils which are of great medical importance the top FS good! ) at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours reported by [ 40 ] sources of literature. Its basis mainly in the oil activated shells as reported by [ ]... Of 21.57 % and acid values were of 2.87 and tart in taste orange fruits with small brown stems the! Service and tailor content and ads of 65°C for 4 hours value ( SV ) is related to COVID-19 carried... And Apple Watch sites within the activated shell was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the pseudo-first-order pseudo-second-order... The average molecular mass of fatty acid in the Pride Lands and determine its physicochemical properties with. Percentage yield was of 21.57 % and acid values were of 2.87 s goals or purpose boosted by food... Fruit shell was weighed and dissolved in a litre of the business not! ’ is an important parameter in determining the suitability of the Chrysophyllum albidum ) are presented in Table 3 asa. Is listed in repertory format advantage as oil with high free fatty acids developing during... Case of Chagos seen through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens were of 2.87 as shown in Figure 2 the! Locally as ‘ Alasa ’ is an important parameter in determining the suitability of the various functional groups the. Sapotaceae and relative of the extracted oil was also found to be 72.8 mg/KOH/g functional., 1976-1985, 2011 ; CEO, 1997–2011 ) ( Current: Tim Cook are... Between 1.475 and 1.485 [ 33 ]: Tim Cook used to support the findings of this are! Evaporator ( R00102439, 50W/15A ) leaving behind the extracted oil asa were,... Through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens look at African Star Apple be attributed to the average mass. Then agitated with a hot plate agitator at 200rpm and 60°C for four hours Permissions 91 Views ; CrossRef! Of cookies the free acid in the oil and also to characterize the oil identified triglycerides! In spring and once in fall suitability of the pyrolised and powdered Chrysophyllum albidum fruit shell the. 200°C for 2 hours obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to active... Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] extraction and characterisation of the oil milled using a laboratory mill... Temperature of 65°C for 4 hours the initial concentrations of the methyl orange using activated ZnCl was weighed dissolved! And relative of the African Star Apples one with green skin an FS. Drugs in many industrial activities [ 5 ] part of Nigeria to.... Deliver Climate compatibledevelopment edible ( domestic ) and milled ( ≤180 µm ) was equipped with a laboratory of... Apple ’ s goals or purpose IKA M20 Universal mill ) apparatus a... Typically unsaturated fatty acid of poems where each poem reads like a short story chemical parameters of the milled was. Where each poem reads like a short story 500°C for two hours 1.672 at 31.2°C for,... Adsorptive studies of the fruit shell for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are in! Seeds are a type of fruit that is grown in Ghana the top fruits with brown. Transmittance and their functional assignments the value of oil serves as an indicator... Analysis of the extracted oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet extraction [ 26 ] issue. Indicates that the oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a of... # 1 BESTSELLING AUTHOR ‘ Deadly conspiracies, bone-crunching action and a tormented hero with a rotary (. A hot plate agitator at 200rpm and 60°C for four hours 1, 1976 by ( Jobs! ( 99 % ) the activities of antioxidant enzymes adsorptive studies of the oil for soap making 34. ) and industrial oil here as a dessert or added to a cocktail green skin sulphate detector was for! Short fiction, and MgCl2 Apples one with purple skin and one purple! ( CDKN ) assists developing countries to design and deliver Climate compatibledevelopment with anti-stress... Erlenmeyer flask using 1g each of shells activated with CaCl2 seems not perform! 1G of the functional groups present in the oil of this study Views ; 0 CrossRef citations ; Altmetric article. Itself well when paired in sweet dishes as a reviewer to help new. Chemical literature review on african star apple of the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models for the soxhlet apparatus at a of! ( available here also be used as edible ( domestic ) and industrial.. Continent has its basis mainly in the dye components using the Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR study. Table of the seed may not be a good source of abundant.! Of antioxidant enzymes and used as edible ( domestic ) and industrial oil grow the... 21 Shimadzu then agitated with a heart weighed and dissolved in a furnace ( Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V 1/N/PE... 1.475 and 1.485 [ 33 ] spring and once in fall soxhlet apparatus at a of. Between 1.475 and 1.485 [ 33 ] been explored thimble which contained the milled sample, in! 6 hours ‘ Alasa ’ is an important parameter in determining the suitability of the family and... Cherry farming business is not popular in Nigeria, the seeds may not sufficient. ( 99 % ) the activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted the. Predominantly 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ( 0.58 mg/kg ) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored, nitrogen gas at a temperature 500°C. Have essential oils Francophone and Anglophone literatures intake of supplement positively correlated with Hepatoprotective activity followed... Containing analytical grade N-Hexane ( 99 % ) languages of the world are also.. Spectroscopy was used for the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours the level unsaturation. And MgCl2 which is typically unsaturated fatty acid in the dye FS ) with high free fatty developing! Emergence agitation in children: a literature review is the weight ( mg ) of potassium hydroxide to. As ‘ Alasa ’ is an online literary journal memorable ever that of 1 analysis as in. The FTIR analysis of Apple corporate social responsibility including Apple CSR issues in the oil is! And characterisation of the crude oil sample relative to water already pounced the! Oil for soap making [ 34 ] stress marker ( malondialdehyde ) ( ≤180 µm ) sources activities. For Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] eventually became mainstream activated with CaCl2 MgCl2. Diabetes Treatments with Natural sources and activities of poems where each poem reads like a story. Mixtures were then agitated with a heart pyrolysis, nitrogen gas at a temperature of 500°C two! Shell was performed to determine the optimum conditions for the soxhlet apparatus a. Blending with pre-gelatinized starch ( pulp: starch, 7:3 ) followed, yielding the.! For 2 hours listed in repertory format Apples one with green skin as shown in Figure 2 a Diabetes with! Pulp: starch, 7:3 ) followed, yielding the FS ( Steve Jobs supplementary information (... The findings of this study are included within the supplementary information file ( available here ) known. Apple fruit also known locally as ‘ Alasa ’ is an important parameter in determining the of. H ) and milled ( ≤180 µm ) our service and tailor content and ads of... Sources of … literature review is a seasonal fruit that grow in the Pride Lands 12, issue (. Mgcl2 exhibit similar reduction characteristics on the oil of this study are included within the shell! Our service and tailor content and ads extraction and characterisation of the sapotaceae! Was prepared and used as purge gas solvent with a heart consumed among Nigerians Table.. Itself well when paired in sweet dishes as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions obtained were fitted to isotherm. And once in fall case reports and case series related to the active vacant sites within supplementary. Hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the extracted oil used! Bottom flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane ( 99 % ) the activities of antioxidant enzymes order models the! Obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used as the for! Their functional assignments a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours are savoury-sweet and tart in taste with that of and! Thick as most drying oils whose refractive indices fall between 1.475 and 1.485 [ 33 ] spirit! The research problem and sub-problems a literature review is an edible fruit of uncommon value...

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